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Communication Kits

ALS-CT-05

8 CHANNEL TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING AND DEMULTIPLEXING TRAINER

 

 

This kit facilitates the students in learning Pulse Amplitude modulation and de modulation, multiplexing of the sampled signal and reconstruction of the original signal.

FEATURES:
  • 8 Channel multiplexing and demultiplexing.
  • On board variable Sine Triangle and square wave generators.
  • Low Pass Filters.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources.

 
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • Input Channels: 8 numbers8
  • Switching: Time Division Multiplexing
  • Modulation: Pulse Amplitude Modulation
  • On board Signals: Sine - 1no, Triangle - 1 no, Square - 2 no.s
  • On-board Signal frequency Range: 50 Hz to 500Hz adjustable @2V pk-pk
  • Sampling clock: 64 K Hz
  • Test Points: 26 nos.
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V


 
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study 8 channel Multiplexing and Demultiplexing.
  • To Study address generation and its use in multiplexing and demultiplexing.
  • To Study Pulse Amplitude Modulation and demodulation.

 

ALS-CT-06

AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

This trainer provides an opportunity to study carrier modulation of digital signals. There are various carrier modulation techniques required for transmission of digital information. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) is one such modulation scheme. Digital signal is represented by a sequence of '0's and '1's. In ASK a carrier frequency is switched On if the data bit is '1' and switched off if the data bit is '0'. This trainer provides a bit pattern generator and carrier signal required to carryout the experiment. 

FEATURES:

  • Data pattern generators.
  • Carrier with variable frequency.
  • Low Pass Filters.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board Data sources: 4 no.s of Data Patterns ranging from 1K Hz to 5 KHz @ 4V pk-pk
  • Modulation: Amplitude Shift Keying Modulation
  • On-board carrier frequency Range: 100KHz
  • Test Points: 7 nos.
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study Amplitude Shift Keying by connecting various Data patterns available on-board.
  • To Study Data recovery by using Low pass filters and Data squaring circuit
  • On-board carrier frequency Range: 100KHz

 

ALS-CT-07

PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

 

This trainer provides an opportunity to study carrier modulation of digital signals. There are various carrier modulation techniques required for transmission of digital information. Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is one such modulation scheme. Digital signal is represented by a sequence of '0's and '1's. In PSK. Carrier signal which is in-phase or 180 degrees out of phase is switched depending on whether the Input Data is '1' or '0'. This trainer provides a bit pattern generator and carriers with 0 deg. and 180 deg. Phase difference

FEATURES:

  • Data pattern generators.
  • Carriers with variable frequency.
  • Low Pass Filters.
  • Wave shaping circuits.
  • Comparator and Data squaring circuits.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources

 
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board Data sources: 4 no.s of Data Patterns ranging from 500 Hz to 2.5 KHz @ 2.5V pk-pk
  • Modulation: Phase Shift Keying Modulation
  • On-board carrier frequency Range: 2 KHz to 10 KHz adjustable @ 2.5V pk-pk
  • Test Points: 7 nos
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study Phase Shift Keying by connecting to various Data patterns available on-board.
  • To Study Data recovery by using Wave shaping circuits, filters and Data squaring circuits.

 

ALS-CT-08

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

This trainer provides a facility to study carrier modulation of digital signals. There are various carrier modulation techniques required for transmission of digital information. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) is one such modulation scheme. Digital signal is represented by a sequence of '0's and '1's. In FSK a carrier signal is switched between two frequencies depending on whether the Data bit is '1' or '0'. This trainer provides a bit pattern and carrier generator.

FEATURES:

  • Data pattern generators.
  • Low Pass Filters.
  • XR2206 is used as FSK modulator. This IC is made to output two different frequencies depending on the state of the Input Data.
  • LM565 is used as a demodulator.
  • Filters and Comparator as Data squaring circuits at the output.
  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources.

 
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board Data sources: 4 no.s of Data Patterns ranging from 60 Hz to 300 Hz @ 4V pk-pk
  • Carrier frequency: 2124Hz for DATA =1 and 2975Hz for DATA=0
  • Modulation: Frequency Shift Keying Modulation
  • Test Points: 14 nos
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V

 
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study Frequency Shift Keying by connecting to various Data patterns available on-board.
  • To Study the output signal by properly tuning the center frequency of PLL (in the Demodulator).
  • To Study Data recovery by using filters and Data squaring circuits.

 

ALS-CT-09

Pulse Position Modulator and Demodulator Trainer

Pulse Position Modulation ( PPM ) is a  basic Pulse Modulation technique. The trainer provides complete set up to the students for performing experiments to learn PPM. They can study Sampling, Pulse Modulation, Demodulation & Signal reconstruction process. Separate circuits are provided for each stage.

Features:
On-board signal generator

  • Low Pass Filters at the output.
  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the  signal sources
  • Technical Specifications:
  • Sampling clock : 4  KHz to 40 KHz. Adjustable
  • LM3524 is used to convert the  Input signal ( Sine or DC ) to Pulse Width Modulated signal and also to generate sampling clock (4  KHz to 40 KHz. Adjustable)

 On-board signal generator :

  • Sine wave : 300 Hz  to 3 KHz  (Adjustable)
  • DC signal : 1.0 V to 4.0 V (Adjustable)
  • Modulation: Pulse Position modulation
  • Interconnections:    2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V, +12V and  -12V

List of Experiments:

  • To Study Pulse Position modulation  and de modulation.
  • To study change in pulse width and pulse position in accordance with Input signal amplitude.
  • To Study Effect of sampling clock frequency on the modulated and recovered signal
  • To Study Data recovery by using filter, buffer and amplifier.

ALS-CT-10

PCM Communication using CODEC

This trainer provides an opportunity to study CODEC.  A CODEC has two parts, Encoder and Decoder. Encoder  converts the input audio signal sampled at regular intervals into PCM data. Decoder converts the input PCM data to an equivalent analog voltage. While doing this it applies either A-law or Mu-law. It also provides anti-aliasing filter.
The trainer uses HD44233P CODEC which is an  A-law codec.

Features:
On-board signal generator

  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the  signal sources
  • Two numbers HD44233P CODEC is used as  modulator demodulator  for both way communication
  • Amplifiers at the output.
  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the  signal sources

 Technical Specifications:
On-board signal generator :

  • Sine wave : 300 Hz  to 3 KHz  (Adjustable)
  • Triangle wave : 300 Hz  to 3 KHz  (Adjustable)
  • Interconnections:    2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V


List of Experiments:

  • To Study PCM communication with CODEC

ALS-CT-11

 Pulse Amplitude Modulator and Demodulator Trainer

Pulse Amplitude  Modulation ( PAM ) is a  basic Pulse Modulation technique. The trainer provides complete set up to the students for performing experiments to learn PAM. They can study Sampling, Pulse Modulation, Demodulation & Signal reconstruction process. Separate circuits are provided for each stage.
.
Features:

On-board signal generator

  • Low Pass Filters at the output.
  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the  signal sources


Technical Specifications:

  • Sampling clock : 4  KHz to 40 KHz. Adjustable


On-board signal generator :

  • Sine wave : 300 Hz  to 3 KHz  (Adjustable)
  • DC signal : 1.0 V to 4.0 V (Adjustable)
  • Modulation: Pulse Amplitude modulation
  • Interconnections:    2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V, +12V and  -12V


List of Experiments:

  • To Study Pulse Amplitude modulation  and de-modulation.
  • To study change in pulse amplitude in accordance with Input signal amplitude.
  • To Study Effect of sampling clock frequency on the modulated and recovered signal
  • To Study Data recovery by using filter, buffer and amplifier.

ALS-CT-12

Pulse Width Modulator and Demodulator Trainer

Pulse Width Modulation ( PWM ) is a  basic Pulse Modulation technique. The trainer provides complete set up to the students for performing experiments to learn PWM. They can study Sampling, Pulse Modulation, Demodulation & Signal reconstruction process. Separate circuits are provided for each stage.

Features:
On-board signal generator

  • Low Pass Filters at the output.
  • Test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the  signal sources


Technical Specifications:

  • LM3524 is used to convert the  Input signal ( Sine or DC ) to Pulse Width Modulated signal and also to generate sampling clock (4  KHz to 40 KHz. Adjustable)


On-board signal generator :

  • Sine wave : 300 Hz  to 3 KHz  (Adjustable)
  • DC signal : 1.0 V to 4.0 V (Adjustable)
  • Modulation: Pulse Width modulation
  • Interconnections:    2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V, +12V and  -12V


List of Experiments:

  • To Study Pulse Width modulation  and de modulation.
  • To study change in pulse width in accordance with Input signal amplitude.
  • To study effect of sampling clock frequency on the modulated and recovered signal
  • To Study of Data recovery by using filter, buffer and amplifier.

ADAPTIVE DELTA MODULATION & DEMODULATION WITH POWER SUPPLY          

  • Sampling Frequency: 64Khz, 32Khz, 16Khz & 8Khz
  • Input Selectable 1Khz or 2Khz or Non-Sinusoidal
  • Linear delta modulation & demodulation (LDM)
  • Adaptive (CVSD) delta modulation & demodulation (ADM)
  • Slope overload and Granular Noise
  • Voice Transmission & reception using LDM & ADM
  • Addition of Noise, varying band-width & varying of attenuation through simulated channel

ALS-CT-14

FREQUENCY MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

Frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. In analog applications, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. A simple form of FM often used for digital communications is FSK. Digital Data can be sent by shifting the carrier's frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as Frequency Shift Keying (FSK). In FSK frequency changes abruptly in contrast to FM.

FEATURES:

  • On-board signal generator.
  • Low Pass Filters at the output.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources.
  • XR2206 is used for modulation.
  • LM565 is used as a demodulator.

 
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board signal generator:
  • Sine wave: 500 Hz to 1.5 KHz (Adjustable) @ 3.5V pk-pk
  • DC signal: 0 V to 5.0 V (Adjustable)
  • Carrier: sine wave in the frequency range of 53K Hz to 84 KHz
  • Modulation: Frequency Modulation
  • Test Points: 9 nos
  • Interconnections : 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V, +12V and -12V


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study change in frequency of the modulator output in accordance with the DC level of the input signal.
  • To Study the output signal by properly tuning the center frequency of PLL (in the Demodulator).
  • To Study Data recovery by using filters and Data squaring circuits.

 

ALS-CT-15

AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

Amplitude modulation (AM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its amplitude. In analog applications, the instantaneous amplitude of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. A simple form of AM often used for digital communications is ON-OFF keying, a type of Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) by which binary data is represented as the presence or absence of a carrier wave.

FEATURES:

  • On-board signal generator.
  • Low Pass Filters at the output.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources.
  • Transistors and Tuned circuits are used as modulator.
  • A simple diode is used as a demodulator.

 
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board signal generator:
    • Sine wave: 200 Hz to 2 KHz (Adjustable)
    • Amplitude of sine wave: 1V to 12V(Adjustable)
  • On-board Carrier: sine wave tuned to 100 KHz
  • Amplitude of Carrier: 3V to 5V(Adjustable)
  • Modulation: Frequency Modulation
  • Modulation: Amplitude Modulation
  • Test Points: 8 nos
  • Interconnections : 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V, +12V and -12V

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study Modulation Index of the modulated signal.
  • To study effect of over modulation

 

ALS-CT-16

DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

This trainer provides an opportunity to study carrier modulation of digital signals.There are various carrier modulation techniques required for transmission of digitalinformation. Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) is one such modulation scheme. Itis similar to PSK. In PSK before keying, DATA is not conditioned. In DPSK the Input DATAis conditioned to NRZM format before keying. After demodulation, the DATA isreconditioned to get back the original DATAThis trainer provides a bit pattern generator and carriers with 0 deg. and 180 deg.Phase difference.

FEATURES:

  • Data pattern generators.
  • Carriers with variable frequency.
  • Low pass Filters.
  • Wave shaping circuits.
  • Comparator and Data squaring circuits.
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.
  • Potentiometers to vary the frequency of the signal sources

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

  • On-board Data sources: 4 no.s of Data Patterns ranging from 500 Hz to 2 KHz @ 20K Hz carrier
  • Carrier: sine wave - 2 KHz to 20 KHz (Adjustable)
  • Modulation: Differential Phase Shift Keying Modulation
  • Test Points: 22 nos
  • Data formatting de-formatting circuits.
  • Test Points: 8 nos
  • Interconnections : 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • To Study Differential Phase Shift Keying by connecting to various Data patterns available on-board.
  • To Study Data recovery by using Wave shaping circuits, filters and Data squaring circuits.

ALS-CT-17

PULSE CODE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER

This trainer provides an opportunity to study PCM. In order to send analog signals over a digital communication system, we need to convert analog signals to digital ones. The process is performed by analog-to-digital-converter (ADC). The analog signal is sampled (i.e. measured at regularly spaced instants) and then quantized (i.e. converted to discrete numeric values.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • On-board signal generator:
    • Analog signal:

                    Sine wave: 200Hz to 1KHz (Adjustable)
                    Amplitude :0 to 2 V(Adjustable)

    • Digital Signal: DC 0V to 5V (Adjustable).
  • Byte rate: 4KHz
  • Sampling Clock: 32KHz.
  • Test Points : 13 nos
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:   

  • To study PCM code for various DC levels.
  • To study coding with respect to Byte and Clock.
  • To study Demodulation.

 

ALS-CT-18

ANALOG SIGNAL SAMPLING AND RECONSTRUCTION TRAINER

This trainer provides an opportunity to study analog signal sampling and to prove the Sampling theorem. In this trainer the sine wave signal available on the trainer is sampled at regular intervals to produce amplitude modulated signal. The sampling frequency can be selected from 4 different sampling rates. It is also possible to change the duty cycle of the sampling clock from 0% to 100% using DIP switches. It is possible to select between Flat sampling type of output or Natural sampling type of output using a jumper. Finally in the demodulator it is possible to choose either a single two pole filter or two no.s of two pole filters connected in cascade.

FEATURES:

  • Sampling clocks: 4 nos: 16 KHz, 8KHz, 4 KHz and 2 KHz.
  • Signal: 1 KHz sine wave with 3 V pk-pk
  • Sampling duration: 0% to 100% in steps of 10%
  • Flat and natural sampling option
  • Low pass Filters: 2 no.s of two pole filters
  • Various test points to observe the process at various stages.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • Modulation: Pulse Amplitude Modulation
  • On-board sampling clock: adjustable
  • Test Points: 11 nos
  • Interconnections: 2mm Sockets with patch cords.
  • Power: External 5V,+12V and -12V

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

  • Study of flat and natural sampling of the Pulse amplitude Modulated signal.
  • Study of the demodulated signal for various sampling rate, sampling duty
  • cycle and filtering stages.
  • To study and prove Nyquist theory.

ALS-CTE-25   

DELTA &  ADAPTIVE (ADAPTINE) DELTA MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:

  • Modulations & Demodulations: Linear & Adaptive (CVSD)
  • On board input signal (Sinusoidal)
  • 1Khz,2Khz & non-sinusoidal (Variable Amplitude)
  • On board Sampling Frequencies: 8 KHz, 16 KHz.
  • 32 KHz, 64Khz (Switch able)
  • Onboard Compressors Expander
  • Voice interface to study the performance of Linear & Adaptive mod/demod
  • Inbuilt channel simulator to induce noise, attenuation and bandwidth
  • Relevant test points for observation and sockets for connections

EXPERIMENTS:

  • To study the encoding process of a linear delta modulator
  • To study the Decoding process of the linear delta demodulator
  • To identify the slope overload for the linear delta modulated signals
  • To identify the granular noise (quantization noise) of the linear delta modulated signal
  • To identify the Idling noise of the linear delta modulated signals
  • To study the performance of linear delta modulation by using Non-Sinusoidal Signal
  • To study the effect of linear delta modulation by using Compander and expander
  • To study the behavior of linear delta modulation by process of Adaptive Dea modulation by voice transmission and reception.
  • To study the Encoding process of Adaptive Delta Modulation (CVSD).
  • To study the Decoding process of Adaptive Delta Modulation (CVSD).
  • To study the performance of adaptive delta modulation by using a Non-Sinusoidal Signal.
  • To study the behavior of adaptive delta modulation (CVSD) by voice transmission and reception.
  • To study the effect of Channel Simulator (Noise, Bandwidth, Attenuation) on the Linear & Adaptive (CVSD) Delta Modulation Systems.
  • To study the significance of Compander and expander for Voice Modulation and Demodulation on Linear Delta Modulation System.